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Consumption: The Film Industry

How does affective economics function in post-modern Cinephilia?

Cinephilia has changed drastically since the classical times. Nowadays thanks to transmediality, we can watch movies from the comfort of our own home. “Facilitated by the development of new technologies, magic retrospectively appears as an inherent trend in cinema consumption as soon as cinema becomes a “universal” type of leisure, potentially encompassing all types of societies and social classes”(Hills, 146). There are a few websites out there that allow us to look up, write reviews, and rate movies, for example, Letterboxd and Imdb. The fact that we can read and share, or disagree with arguments from ordinary people around the world, has made it possible for fan bases to grow easily. Fan Cultures, do not only write reviews but they can rewrite and produce their own content as well.

Fans have not only the power to actually bring back a show, like Brooklyn 99, where the massive backlash from fans was listened to, and previously produced by FOX, NBC promised to produce another series (O’Brian), they can also participate in the making of different projects.  Since these massive fan bases exist, producers have taken advantage of this mass of fan bases in order to produce content through Crowdfunding sites. This is ‘Affective economics’. “In short, affective economics mobilises a concept of emotional engagement between consumers and branded goods in order to position itself as beyond mere ‘commodification’.” (Hills, 185). The fans can through crowdfunding, feel like they are part of the production. In some cases by backing a certain project, like Veronica Mars, “Fans may poach from a Kickstarter project by interpreting it not only as securing symbolic proximity to the showrunner/production, but also as offering limited edition or time-sensitive merchandise not otherwise available” (Hills,194).


They work together, the fans and the producers. This blurs the line between ordinary people and educated media people. (Hills). By establishing love marks, the producers of the show avoid “cold impersonal brands” (Hills, 187). The backers and fans feel more involved in the project and can practice cinephilia almost hand in hand with the project itself since they are the ones funding it.

The post-modern cinephilisist has the advantage of the internet and the capability of funding projects they believe in. By working together with project leaders and choosing whom to fund, they are ultimate choosing what is put out there in the market to be shown for yet other cinephilisists.


Jullier, Laurent and Jean-Marc Leveratto. “Cinephilia in the Digital Age.” Audiences: Defining and Researching Screen Entertainment Reception. Edited by Ian Christie. Amsterdam UP, 2012, pp. 143-154.

Hills, Matt. “Veronica Mars, Fandom, and the ‘Affective Economics’ of Crowdfunding Poachers.” New Media & Society 17.2 (2015): 183-197.

O’Brian, Kelly. When Does Brooklyn 99 Come Back? Season 6 Return. 29 May 2018, May 29 2018  Accessed 5 December 2018. Accessed 5 December 2018.


Consumption: The Music Industry

How has music consumption changed recently? 

Music consumption has changed radically in the last two decades from buying CDs in a shop to downloading files illegally on LimeWire to streaming online, for example, Spotify.


People used to download a lot of music online illegally since there weren’t any regulations before to control the issue. After regulations were put down, most likely because it affected the economy; “the GAO study found that the estimated losses in the US economy due to piracy accounted for $58 billion in output and $2.6 billion in tax revenues (BPI, 2010: 24), and people got caught, because of regulations for example when “In April 2009 Sweden implemented a local version of the EU Intellectual Property Rights Enforcement Directive that gave copyright owners the right to request the IP addresses of suspected illegal file sharers by personal experience” (Jewitt, Robert, and Majid Yar, 4), *I find it harder to download nowadays and *I have to think twice before committing a crime that *I can get caught for.


Nowadays, *I actually pay for music, through Spotify.

Before I would not have streamed music since the internet was so expensive to pay for. It would have seemed useless to stream the song once instead of just downloading it at home. However, the developments of technology and access to the internet almost everywhere have made it possible to stream easily. It’s so incredibly easy to have Spotify on your phone instead of carrying CDs and Walkman’s around. It’s the simplicity of having almost all the music in one app that draws people, myself included, to stream music on Spotify. 

Also, I think people respect music more now. “By positioning the paying consumer as a stakeholder in cinema, especially younger tech-savvy demographics, recent antipiracy efforts have sought to promote respect for the creative sector and its various employees, whilst at the same time raising public awareness of legal alternatives to piracy.” (Jewitt, Robert, and Majid Yar, 6). I think this works for music as well. People are realising the worth of the artists more and more by being exposed to the promotion of creativity on different mass media online.

People also consume music on Youtube. Here we combine two types of art in one, filmmaking and music. Music videos can draw people into listening to music. For example, Childish Gambino’s track ‘This is America’ caused a lot of hype because of its strong political statement.

It’s hard to say where the future in music consumption lies but I think people will have more respect for artists and will more and more consume legally online since there are more platforms like Spotify (on which you can stream free as well with the only cost of hearing advertisements), Deezer and Youtube.

* Where I have referenced to myself, I really mean my anonymous friend. I cannot be legally held accountable for committing any crimes that have been confessed here. The person in question shall remain anonymous.


Jewitt, Robert, and Majid Yar. “Consuming the Illegal: Situating Piracy in Everyday Experience.” Convergence 19:1 (2013), pp. 3-8.

Barekat, Houman. “No More Heroes: How Music Stopped Meaning Everything”.